Bioinformatics Glossary


Identity (相同性/相同率)
The extent to which two (nucleotide or amino acid) sequences are invariant.

An insertion or deletion in a sequence alignment.

Information content (of a scoring matrix)
A representation of the degree of sequence conservation in a column of ascoring matrix representing an alignment of related sequences. It is also the number of questions that must be asked to match the column to a position in a test sequence. For bases, the max-imum possible number is 2, and for proteins, 4.32 (logarithm to the base 2 of the number of possible sequence characters).

Information theory(信息理论)
A branch of mathematics that measures information in terms of bits, the minimal amount of structural complexity needed to encode a given piece of information.

Input layer(输入层)
The initial layer in a feed-forward neural net. This layer encodes input information that will be fed through the network model.

Interface definition language
Used to define an interface to an object model in a programming language neutral form, where an interface is an abstraction of a service defined only by the operations that can be performed on it.

The network infrastructure, consisting of cables interconnected by routers, that pro-vides global connectivity for individual computers and private networks of computers. A second sense of the word internet is the collective computer resources available over this global network.

Interpolated Markov model
A type of Markov model of sequences that examines sequences for patterns of variable length in order to discriminate best between genes and non-gene sequences.


Intron (内含子)
Non-coding region of DNA.

A sequence of operations in a procedure that is performed repeatedly.

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