Bioinformatics Glossary


Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.l)(NCBI发展的许多程序,如显示蛋白质三维结构的Cn3D等所使用的内部格式)
A language that is used to describe structured data types formally, Within bioinformatits,it has been used by the National Center for Biotechnology Information to encode sequences, maps, taxonomic information, molecular structures, and biographical information in such a way that it can be easily accessed and exchanged by computer software.

Accession number(记录号)
A unique identifier that is assigned to a single database entry for a DNA or protein sequence.

Affine gap penalty(一种设置空位罚分策略)
A gap penalty score that is a linear function of gap length, consisting of a gap opening penalty and a gap extension penalty multiplied by the length of the gap. Using this penalty scheme greatly enhances the performance of dynamic programming methods for sequence alignment. See also Gap penalty.

A systematic procedure for solving a problem in a finite number of steps, typically involving a repetition of operations. Once specified, an algorithm can be written in a computer language and run as a program.

Refers to the procedure of comparing two or more sequences by looking for a series of individual characters or character patterns that are in the same order in the sequences. Of the two types of alignment, local and global, a local alignment is generally the most useful. See also Local and Global alignments.

Alignment score(联配/比对/联配值)
An algorithmically computed score based on the number of matches, substitutions, insertions, and deletions (gaps) within an alignment. Scores for matches and substitutions Are derived from a scoring matrix such as the BLOSUM and PAM matrices for proteins, and aftine gap penalties suitable for the matrix are chosen. Alignment scores are in log odds units, often bit units (log to the base 2). Higher scores denote better alignments. See also Similarity score, Distance in sequence analysis.

The total number of symbols in a sequence-4 for DNA sequences and 20 for protein sequences.

The prediction of genes in a genome, including the location of protein-encoding genes, the sequence of the encoded proteins, anysignificantmatches to other Proteins of known function, and the location of RNA-encoding genes. Predictions are based on gene models; e.g., hidden Markov models of introns and exons in proteins encoding genes, and models of secondary structure in RNA.

Anonymous FTP(匿名FTP)
When a FTP service allows anyone to log in, it is said to provide anonymous FTP ser-vice. A user can log in to an anonymous FTP server by typing anonymous as the user name and his E-mail address as a password. Most Web browsers now negotiate anonymous FTP logon without asking the user for a user name and password. See also FTP.

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) encodes unaccented letters a-z, A-Z, the numbers O-9, most punctuation marks, space, and a set of control characters such as carriage return and tab. ASCII specifies 128 characters that are mapped to the values O-127. ASCII tiles are commonly called plain text, meaning that they only encode text without extra markup.

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