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====== R ======

== Radiation hybrid (RH) map (辐射杂交图谱) ==
A genome map in which STSs are positioned relative to one another on the basis of the frequency with which they are separated by radiation-induced breaks. The frequency is assayed by analysing a panel of human–hamster hybrid cell lines, each produced by lethally irradiating human cells and fusing them with recipient hamster cells such that each carries a collection of human chromosomal fragments. The unit of distance is centirays (cR), denoting a 1% chance of a break occuring between two loci

== Raw Score (初值,指最初得到的联配值S) ==
The score of an alignment, S, calculated as the sum of substitution and gap scores. Substitution scores are given by a look-up table (see PAM, BLOSUM). Gap scores are typically calculated as the sum of G, the gap opening penaltyand L, the gap extension penalty. For a gap of length n, the gap cost would be G+Ln. The choice of gap costs, G and L is empirical, but it is customary to choose a high value for G (10-15)and a low value for L (1-2).

== Raw sequence (原始序列/读胶序列) ==
Individual unassembled sequence reads, produced by sequencing of clones containing DNA inserts.

== Receiver operator characteristic ==
The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve describes the probability that a test will correctly declare the condition present against the probability that the test will declare the condition present when actually absent. This is shown through a graph of the tesls sensitivity against one minus the test specificity for different possible threshold values.

== Redundancy (冗余) ==
The presence of more than one identical item represents redundancy. In bioinformatics, the term is used with reference to the sequences in a sequence database. If a database is described as being redundant, more than one identical (redundant) sequence may be found. If the database is said to be non-redundant (nr), the database managers have attempted to reduce the redundancy. The term is ambiguous with reference to genetics, and as such, the degree of non-redundancy varies according to the database manager's interpretation of the term. One can argue whether or not two alleles of a locus defines the limit of redundancy, or whether the same locus in different, closely related organisms constitutes redundency. Non-redundant databases are, in some ways, superior, but are less complete. These factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a database to search.

== Regular expressions ==
This computational tool provides a method for expressing the variations found in a set of related sequences including a range of choices at one position, insertions, repeats, and so on. For example, these expressions are used to characterize variations found in protein domains in the PROSITE catalog.

== Regularization ==
A set of techniques for reducing data overfitting when training a model. See also Overfitting.

== Relational database(关系数据库) ==
Organizes information into tables where each column represents the fields of informa-tion that can be stored in a single record. Each row in the table corresponds to a single record. A single database can have many tables and a query language is used to access the data. See also Object-oriented database.

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